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1990 data. Information is reproduced from the Guide to Health Services of the World, published by the International Hospital Federation, ISBN 0 900590 26 2. Price 16.00.

National Population

Birth Rate (per 1000 population)

Life Expectancy at Birth (Years)
75.9 (Male)
81.9 (Female)

Death Rate (per 1000 population)

Infant Mortality (per 1000 live births)

Health Expenditures
Total expenditure on health services in yen - 20,607,400 m
Amount spent per capita in yen - 166,700

Sources of Health Expenditure
No figures available.

Description of Health Services

Structure and Organisation

The healthcare system in Japan is administered primarily by the private sector. At the national level the Ministry of Health and Welfare is responsible for the overall provision of health care. At the state level, prefectural state departments are responsible for health planning. The municipal authorities are responsible for public health services. The public sector at the national level has regulative authority and also operates some hospitals.


The health services are financed by a government health insurance scheme and by individual sick funds for the employed, both offering the same level of coverage. They are supplemented by some contribution from the national, state and local governments and charges levied on patients for certain services.

Access and Types of Service Covered

Access is available to all citizens regardless of financial or insurance status of the patient. Health insurance is compulsory but poor people are covered by a government subsidy scheme. Virtually all healthcare services are covered by insurance schemes.

Quality Assurance and National Standards

There exists a quality-assurance programme in Japan in the form of a prefectural government's structural evaluation programme.

Hospital Statistics (1990)

No. of Hospitals - Short-Term 9,006 - Long-Term 41, Psychiatric 1,049
No. of Beds Available - Short-Term 1,253,909 - Long-Term 63,507 - Psychiatric 358,987
Total Staff - No statistics available


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